Urinary Tract Infections

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Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria—most often Escherichia coli. However, certain viruses, fungi, and parasites can also lead to infection. The infection can affect the lower and upper urinary tract, including the urethra, prostate (in males), bladder, ureter, and kidney. Due to the progression of the disease and human anatomy, symptoms present differently among the sexes as well as among age groups. It is important to understand how these factors, as well as others, impact the pathophysiology of UTIs. Advanced practice nurses must have this foundation in order to properly diagnose patients.

To Prepare

· Review Chapter 30 in the Huether and McCance text. Identify the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections. Consider the similarities and differences between the two types of infections.

· Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.


· a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections, including their similarities and differences. (I am looking for an explanation at the cellular or molecular level (whenever possible).

· Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.


Bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and multiply in the bladder, resulting in urinary tract infections. 
Despite the fact that the urinary system is designed to keep such small invaders out, these defenses do not always work. 
Bacteria may take root and grow into full-blown infection in the urinary tract if this happens.


The bladder and urethra are the most prevalent sites for UTIs in women.


Urinary tract infection (cystitis). 
Escherichia coli (E. coli), kind of bacteria typically found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is the most prevalent cause of this form of UTI. 
Other bacteria, on the other hand, are sometimes to blame.


Cystitis can be caused by sexual activity, but you don’t have to be sexually active to get it. 
Because of the short distance between the urethra and the anus, and the urethral entrance to the bladder, all women are at risk of cystitis.


Urinary tract infection (urethritis). 
When GI bacteria travel from the anus to the urethra, this form of UTI develops. 
Sexually transmitted illnesses like herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and mycoplasma can also induce urethritis since the female urethra is so close to the vagina.


Factors that are at risk


Urinary tract infections are prevalent in women, and many of them have many infections throughout their lives. 
UTI risk factors that are particular to women include:


Anatomy of woman 
woman’s urethra is shorter than man’s, reducing the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.


There is sexual activity. 
UTIs are more common in sexually active women than in non-sexually active women. 
Having new sexual partner raises your risk as well.


Certain types of birth control are available. 
Women who use diaphragms for birth control, as well as those who use spermicidal drugs, may be at higher risk.


decrease in circulating estrogen after menopause causes abnormalities in the urinary tract, making you more susceptible to infection.


UTIs can also be caused by the following factors:


Anomalies of the urinary tract. 
UTIs are more common in babies born with urinary tract anomalies that prevent urine from leaving the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra.


Urinary tract obstructions. 
Urine can become trapped in the bladder due to kidney stones or an enlarged prostate, increasing the risk of UTIs.


An immune system that has been inhibited. 
UTIs can be exacerbated by diabetes and other conditions that affect the immune system, the body’s natural defense against microorganisms.


Use of catheter. 
UTIs are more common in those who can’t urinate on their own and urinate through tube (catheter). 
Persons who are hospitalized, people with neurological issues that make it difficult to control their urination, and people who are paralyzed may all fall into this category.


recent urinary operation was performed. 
Urinary surgery or medically assisted examination of your urinary tract might both raise your chances of getting urinary tract infection.




Lower urinary tract infections rarely cause problems when treated early and correctly. 
urinary tract infection, on the other hand, if left untreated, might have significant repercussions.


UTI can cause variety of complications, including:


Recurrent infections, particularly in women who have had two or more UTIs in the previous six months or four or more in the previous year.


Acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) caused by an untreated UTI can cause permanent kidney damage.


Pregnant mothers are more likely to have low birth weight or preterm babies.


Men with recurrent urethritis have urethral narrowing (stricture), which was previously recognized with gonococcal urethritis.


Sepsis is potentially life-threatening infection complication that occurs when an infection spreads from your urinary tract to your kidneys.




You can lower your risk of urinary tract infections by doing the following steps:


Drink plenty of water and other beverages. 
Drinking water dilutes your urine and encourages you to urinate more frequently, allowing bacteria in your urinary system to be cleared out before an illness develops.


Cranberry juice should be consumed. 
Although research on cranberry juice’s ability to prevent UTIs are inconclusive, it is unlikely to be hazardous.


Wipe the entire surface from front to back. 
After urinating and having bowel movement, do so to avoid bacteria from spreading from the anal region to the vagina and urethra.


After intercourse, empty your bladder as soon as possible. 
Additionally, drink full glass of water to aid in the flushing of bacteria.


Avoid using any feminine items that could irritate you. 
Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products in the genital area, such as douches and powders, might irritate the urethra.


Change your technique of birth control. 
Bacterial growth can be aided by diaphragms, as well as unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms.
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