Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation

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Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation

Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation

Assess your knowledge of foundational concepts essential to the nursing management of client health by taking the interactive quiz, located in the media “Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation.”

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The study of patient’s arterial blood gas (ABG) is crucial for identifying and maintaining their oxygenation status and acid–base balance. 
The effectiveness of this diagnostic tool is contingent on the ability to interpret the results appropriately. 
Acid–base imbalances can cause complications in variety of diseases, and the aberration can sometimes be so severe that it becomes life-threatening risk factor. 
Any physician, intensivist, or anesthesiologist, for example, must have good understanding of acid–base balance.


The HCO3- (in the context of pCO2), standard base excess (SBE), and strong ion difference (SID) are the three most extensively utilized approaches to acid–base physiology (SID). 
Stewart’s idea of SID, which is defined as the absolute difference between totally dissociated anions and cations, has been around for more than 20 years. 
The weak acids and CO2 balance this discrepancy according to the concept of electrical neutrality. 
CO2 has been renamed effective SID (SIDe), which is the same as “buffer base,” because the SID is described in terms of weak acids. 
Similarly, the dissociated (A-) and undissociated (AH) weak acid forms are now defined as Stewart’s original word for total weak acid concentration (ATOT). 
When normal concentration is induced by A-, this is referred to as anion gap (AG). 
When used to determine the acid–base state of blood sample, all three procedures produce nearly comparable findings. 


Visit learn more about why an ABG analysis is required, go to: Why is it Necessary to Order an ABG Analysis?


Because of the following advantages, doing an ABG analysis becomes necessary:


Assists in the diagnosing process.


The therapeutic plan is guided by this.


Aids in the administration of ventilators.


Improved acid/base management helps drugs to perform at their best.


Acid/base balance can affect electrolyte levels, which are crucial to patient’s health.


The proper collection, processing, and analysis of an ABG specimen are essential for accurate results. 
Any of the following processes can have clinically significant mistakes, but ABG readings are particularly prone to preanalytic errors. 
Nonarterial samples, air bubbles in the sample, insufficient or excessive anticoagulant in the sample, and delayed analysis of noncooled sample are the most typical issues.


Go to: Pre-Analytical Errors That Could Happen


The following stages result in preanalytical errors:


Prior to sampling, during preparation


Patient/sample identity is missing or incorrect;


Use of the wrong anticoagulant or the wrong dose of anticoagulant


– dilution as result of using liquid heparin;


– inadequate heparin dosage;


– electrolyte binding to heparin;


Inadequate stabilization of the patient’s respiratory state; and


Insufficient flush solution clearance in arterial lines prior to blood collection.
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